Taliban insurgency: The Genesis Of Taliban Terror.

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The purpose of the review on the Taliban is to identify studies and thereby factors that have been undertaken on the topic and serve as a reasonable framework for discussing the issues accomplished in an analysis of the Taliban’s, under the following sub-headings. What is a Taliban? Taliban insurgency, Taliban women, Trump and Taliban, Biden and Taliban, and The Taliban endorsement.



What is a Taliban?


According to David, (2021). The word Taliban means learners or students in  Pashto, one of the official languages of the Afghan.
Taliban was formed in the early 1990s in Afghanistan following the withdrawal of the Soviet troops, the collapse of Afghanistan's communist regime, and the subsequent breakdown in civil order.+as cited by Kandahar Afghanistan 1994).
It is a popular belief that the movement which was predominantly Pashtun had its origin in religious seminaries - mostly paid for by money from Saudi Arabia - which preached a hardline form of Sunni Islam. (BBC, 2021). The initial aim of this small force of Afghan religious students and scholars was to confront crimes and corruption.



Taliban insurgency


The religious group which promise the masses security and chasteness grew into the movement now known as the Taliban. By late 1996 the Taliban seize the capital of Kabul and also gain ground in many parts of the country.


Taliban faced a lot of resistance as a result of its interpretation of law and order. It also had a strict religious ideology and a mixture of other traditions such as Diobandi etc and also the implementation of harsh criminal punishment to some specific ethnic groups. Its policies included the exclusion of women from public life.


Taliban insurgency began after the group fall from power during the 2001 war in Afghanistan.
Apart from Taliban disregard for human rights, they also offer refuge for criminals such as bin Ladan, which became a major concern for other countries. Bin Ladan help create a network called al-Qaeda for foreign-born Muslim fighters during the Afghan war. The network is consist of religious or Islamic fighter who sought a violent struggle to gain influence and to gain total leadership over non-Muslims. The group has ever since attacked the united states including the attack against the world bank in New York City and the Pentagon outside Washington D.C. (Wikipedia).


 There was a chance to nip these insurgents at inception but the U.S. government refused the opportunity. They refuse to reconcile with the defeated Taliban and declined to implement an inclusive, post-conflict peace process, so the Taliban soon rebuilt itself as a powerful insurgency. (Barnett, 2019; Annad, 2010;2014).
John (2021), opines that this poor division of labor resulted in a weak strategy. Efforts at every turn prove abortive. as the security of life and property keep deteriorating it compelled the mission to have newer scope… Lack of knowledge at the local level also adds to the negative outcome of the Afghan war.

 As cited by John, (2021) All afford seems abortive despite the investment in the security system as the mission slowly take another turn from counter-terrorism toward reconstruction-heavy counter-insurgency, which became an additional enemy to the U.S . Ambassador Ryan Crocker was quoted by SIGAR, “The ultimate point of failure for our efforts wasn’t an insurgency. It was the weight of endemic corruption".

 


Taliban women

 

During the Taliban rule of 1996-2001 in Afghanistan, the group was considered notorious internationally for its violence and implementation of hard laws against women based on gender inequality.

It's started its motive as to create an environment where chasteness and dignity for women may once again be restored and protected but ever since the Taliban came into power, Women in Afghan face gender inequality. Women in Afghan are forced to wear burgers in public all the time because according to one of the Taliban spoke people, "The face of a woman is the source of corruption" for men that are bonded to them either by blood or marriage.


Women were not allowed to work or obtain an education after the age of eight. They were permitted to study only the Qur'an.
Women who had an interest in education, both they and their teachers only operate underground schools where they risked execution when caught. They were not permitted to be treated by a male doctor unless attained by a male chaperone, which lead to illness remaining untreated. they face public floggings and execution for violation of Taliban laws. They also encouraged marriage below the accepted age of sixteen.
Amnesty International reported that 80% of marriages in Afghanistan are forced. (Wikipedia).


Although the Afghan government pursues a policy of promoting equality for women under its "National Action Plan for Women of Afghanistan" (NAPWA). "Tokyo Mutual Accountability Framework" Ask Afghanistan to implement the NAPWA and its past commitment to secure or strengthen the right of women, Despite the law since 2001, women still experience abuses such as denial of education and employment, jailed under the term "Zina" which means adultery but in Afghan law, even eloping, fleeing from domestic violence, jailed for pregnancy out of wedlock even if it is as a result of rape. due to the traditions of the Afghans. These laws were only Verbally started and written but lacked implementation.
Women can be given out for marriage just to settle disputes.


A man can be charged or sentenced for not more than two years impression next when he killed his wife. The term is coded as “honor killing”.
In an effort to prevent these abuses, on August 6, 2009, then-President Karzai issued, as a decree, the “Elimination of Violence Against Women” (EVAW). He press on the issue of abuses against women and tagged them unlawfully. Partly as a result of the decree, prosecutions or abuses against women had been on the decrease. He establish a  “High Commission for the Elimination of Violence Against Women” to oversee the implementation of the EVAW, and provincial offices of the commission have been established in each province for effective results. Despite the EVAW decree, only a few percentages of reports of violence against women are registered as a result of fear and shame. But once reported, they proceed to trial. The number of women charged for “moral crimes” has been in increased by 50% since 2011. Efforts by the "National Assembly" to act out on the EVAW in December 2010 and in May 2013 failed as a result of opposition from Islamic conservatives who believe that males should decide family issues. (Kenneth, K., & Clayton T. 2017)  

 

Trump and Taliban

 

One Of Trump's topmost desires, since he mounted the presidential seat, is to make sure there is peace between Afghanistan and the Taliban and to also stop the killings and bombing carryout by the Taliban. He wishes to achieve that by negotiations. He also planned to host the Taliban group in Camp David, the jewelry of the American Presidency which only hosts top American officials.

In Washington, On Friday before Labor Day, President Trump gathered top advisers in the Situation Room to consider the decisions of his presidency a peace plan with the Taliban after 18 years of bloody war in Afghanistan. The meeting resulted in conflict dividing his foreign policy team for months, putting Mike Pompeo the secretary of state against John R. Bolton, the national security adviser.

This brings about Competition instincts. On one hand is a president who relishes tough talk but promises to wind down America’s endless wars, on the other hand, are the discussed terms of the agreement. Mr. Pompeo and his negotiator, Zalmay Khalilzad, wanted president Trump to begin withdrawing troops, In return, the Taliban will not shelter terrorists and will be in charge of Afghanistan security.

Mr. Bolton,  in a video, argued that Mr. Trump could keep his campaign pledge to draw down forces without having an unnecessary intimate relationship with a killer group known for their notorious acts and preying Americans.

Mr. Trump made no decision on the spot, but at some point, in a  meeting, he still floated the idea of finalizing the negotiations with the Taliban's leader. President Trump still wanted to host the Taliban leader in one of the topmost official longe before the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks that led to the Afghan war. This lead to a delay in the negotiation process.

The Taliban wanted President Trump to withdraw his troops by first withdrawing 5,000 troops within the period of 135 days and in return, they will organize a counterpart to ease Americans fear of the incident of 11, September.

Mr. Bolton is of the idea that 5,000 troops can be withdrawn but the rest can remind to help their counterparts since the group can not be trusted.

some of the traits of Trump's presidency are the yearning ambition to gain the grand prize, the endless quest to achieve what no other president has achieved, the willingness to defy convention, the volatile mood swings, and the tribal infighting. What would have been one of the biggest achievements of his tenure was encouraged and discouraged in a moment. Not all The usual National Security Council has clue if what was going on, the discovery was a shock to some of the officials. (Peter, B., Mujib, M., & Michael, C. 2021)

 

Biden and Taliban

 

President Trump signs an agreement before he exits the Presidential seat to remove American troops by May 1st. This agreement includes no requirements of the Taliban working a cooperative governing agreement with the Afghan government. But it includes the release of 5,000 prisoners which includes some of the Taliban's top leaders. The agreement states that if the U.S stick to the promise of withdrawal of troops by May 1, the Taliban will not attack any U.S military but if they didn't stick to date, all deals are off.

 His successor President Biden when he was running the election make a commitment to end the war. He happened to be the fourth President who is faced with whether to end the war or not.

The longest war in the history of the United State ends in August 2021 with Americans taking up to 5,500 Americans to safety. The largest number of people to be evacuated to safety in world history. Leaving 100-200 Americans who were born and brought up in Afghanistan who for some reason were unwilling to leave at that point in time. But America is willing to take them home whenever they are ready. 100,000 Afghanistan were also airlifted out.

The success of the mission was a result of the military personal willingness to lay down their life for their people, not for the mission of war or to serve others, but for empathy.

There was opposition from ISIS-K which lead to the demise of Thirteen military personnel and the injury of twenty personal.

America is at ease from the long-term war that has consumed up to $ 2 trillion.

A cost that Researches at Brown University estimated will be over $300 million a day for twenty years in Afghanistan, for two decades.

As stated by many, $ 1 trillion is equivalent to $ 150 million a day for two decades. Which is not to the benefit of the national interest as stated by the President.

The Afghan-American war lasted for 20 years with 20,744 military men and women injured while 2,463, including the thirteen who lost their lives during the mercy mission.

America trained and equipped 300,000 Afghan militaries to serve as a counterpart to the terrorist.

 

Taliban endorsement

 

The Taliban's request was based on three things: political ramifications, Religious stability, and security. They want policymaking to be based on religious approval, civilian approval, and military approval in all matters.

President Trump signs an agreement with the Taliban to remove American troops from Afghanistan.

One of President Trump's long-promised to Americans is to bring back its militaries from Afghanistan, hopefully by Christmas.

The Taliban endorse President Trump after his announcement on Wednesday to withdraw troops from Afghanistan by Christmas.

One of the Taliban spoke person Zabihullah Mujahid told the US network in a telephone interview "We hope he will win the election and wind up the US military presence in Afghanistan." (Deutsche, 2020)

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